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PostSubject: HTML Tutorial   Thu May 17, 2007 3:02 pm

What is an HTML File?


HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language


An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags


The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page


An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension


An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor





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Do You Want to Try It?


If you are running Windows, start Notepad.





If you are on a Mac, start SimpleText.





In OSX start TextEdit and change the following preferences: Open the
the "Format" menu and select "Plain text" instead of "Rich text". Then
open the "Preferences" window under the "Text Edit" menu and select
"Ignore rich text commands in HTML files". Your HTML code will probably
not work if you do not change the preferences above!





Type in the following text:




















This is my first homepage. This text is bold











Save the file as "mypage.htm".




Start your Internet browser. Select "Open" (or "Open Page") in the
File menu of your browser. A dialog box will appear. Select "Browse"
(or "Choose File") and locate the HTML file you just created -
"mypage.htm" - select it and click "Open". Now you should see an
address in the dialog box, for example "C:MyDocumentsmypage.htm".
Click OK, and the browser will display the page.


Last edited by on Thu May 17, 2007 3:11 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: HTML Tutorial   Thu May 17, 2007 3:03 pm

Example Explained


The first tag in your HTML document is <html>. This tag tells
your browser that this is the start of an HTML document. The last tag
in your document is </html>. This tag tells your browser that
this is the end of the HTML document.




The text between the <head> tag and the </head> tag is
header information. Header information is not displayed in the browser
window.





The text between the <title> tags is the title of your document. The title is displayed in your browser's caption.





The text between the <body> tags is the text that will be displayed in your browser.





The text between the and tags will be displayed in a bold font.








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HTM or HTML Extension?

When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the
.html extension. We have used .htm in our examples. It might be a bad
habit inherited from the past when some of the commonly used software
only allowed three letter extensions.





With newer software we think it will be perfectly safe to use .html.








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Note on HTML Editors:

You can easily edit HTML files using a WYSIWYG (what you see is
what you get) editor like FrontPage or Dreamweaver, instead of writing
your markup tags in a plain text file.




However, if you want to be a skillful Web developer, we strongly
recommend that you use a plain text editor to learn your primer HTML.








HTML documents are text files made up of HTML elements.





HTML elements are defined using HTML tags.








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HTML Tags


HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements


HTML tags are surrounded by the two characters <and>


The surrounding characters are called angle brackets


HTML tags normally come in pairs like and


The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag


The text between the start and end tags is the element content


HTML tags are not case sensitive, means the same as





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HTML Elements


Remember the HTML example from the previous page:





<html>


<head>


<title>Title of page</title>


</head>


<body>


This is my first homepage. This text is bold


</body>


</html>





This is an HTML element:





This text is bold





The HTML element starts with a start tag:


The content of the HTML element is: This text is bold


The HTML element ends with an end tag:






The purpose of the tag is to define an HTML element that should be displayed as bold.





This is also an HTML element:





<body>


This is my first homepage. This text is bold


</body>





This HTML element starts with the start tag <body>, and ends with the end tag </body>.





The purpose of the <body> tag is to define the HTML element that contains the body of the HTML document.
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PostSubject: Re: HTML Tutorial   Thu May 17, 2007 3:03 pm

Why do We Use Lowercase Tags?


We have just said that HTML tags are not case sensitive:
means the same as . If you surf the Web, you will notice that
plenty of web sites use uppercase HTML tags in their source code. We
always use lowercase tags. Why?




If you want to follow the latest web standards, you should always
use lowercase tags. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends
lowercase tags in their HTML 4 recommendation, and XHTML (the next
generation HTML) demands lowercase tags.








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Tag Attributes


Tags can have attributes. Attributes provide additional information to an HTML element.

The following tag defines an HTML table: . With an
added border attribute, you can tell the browser that the table should
have no borders:






Attributes always come in name/value pairs like this: name="value".





Attributes are always specified in the start tag of an HTML element.




Attributes and attribute values are also case-insensitive. However,
the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase
attributes/attribute values in their HTML 4 recommendation, and XHTML
demands lowercase attributes/attribute values.








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Always Quote Attribute Values

Attribute values should always be enclosed in quotes. Double style
quotes are the most common, but single style quotes are also allowed.





In some rare situations, like when the attribute value itself contains quotes, it is necessary to use single quotes:





name='John "ShotGun" Nelson'











The most important tags in HTML are tags that define headings, paragraphs and line breaks.




The best way to learn HTML is to work with examples. We have
created a very nice HTML editor for you. With this editor, you can edit
the HTML source code if you like, and click on a test button to view
the result.








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Try it Yourself - Examples


A very simple HTML document

This example is a very simple HTML document, with only a minimum of
HTML tags. It demonstrates how the text inside a body element is
displayed in the browser.




Simple paragraphs


This example demonstrates how the text inside paragraph elements is displayed in the browser.





(You can find more examples at the bottom of this page)








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Headings


Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. <h1>
defines the largest heading. <h6> defines the smallest heading.





<h1>This is a heading</h1>


<h2>This is a heading</h2>


<h3>This is a heading</h3>


<h4>This is a heading</h4>


<h5>This is a heading</h5>


<h6>This is a heading</h6>





HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a heading.








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Paragraphs


Paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag.





<p>This is a paragraph</p>


<p>This is another paragraph</p>





HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a paragraph.








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Line Breaks

The
tag is used when you want to end a line, but don't
want to start a new paragraph. The
tag forces a line break
wherever you place it.





<p>This
is a para
graph with line breaks</p>





The
tag is an empty tag. It has no closing tag.
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PostSubject: Re: HTML Tutorial   Thu May 17, 2007 3:05 pm

Comments in HTML


The comment tag is used to insert a comment in the HTML source code. A
comment will be ignored by the browser. You can use comments to explain
your code, which can help you when you edit the source code at a later
date.











Note that you need an exclamation point after the opening bracket, but not before the closing bracket.








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Basic Notes - Useful Tips

When you write HTML text, you can never be sure how the text is
displayed in another browser. Some people have large computer displays,
some have small. The text will be reformatted every time the user
resizes his window. Never try to format the text in your editor by
adding empty lines and spaces to the text.




HTML will truncate the spaces in your text. Any number of spaces
count as one. Some extra information: In HTML a new line counts as one
space.




Using empty paragraphs to insert blank lines is a bad habit.
Use the
tag instead. (But don't use the
tag to
create lists. Wait until you have learned about HTML lists.)




You might have noticed that paragraphs can be written without the
closing tag . Don't rely on it. The next version of HTML will
not allow you to skip ANY closing tags.




HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after some
elements, like before and after a paragraph, and before and after a
heading.





We use a horizontal rule (the tag), to separate the sections in our tutorials.











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Basic HTML Tags


Tag Description


Defines an HTML document


Defines the document's body


to

Defines header 1 to header 6


Defines a paragraph



Inserts a single line break


Defines a horizontal rule


Defines a comment











How to View HTML Source


Have you ever seen a Web page and wondered "Hey! How did they do that?"




To find out, click the VIEW option in your browser's toolbar and
select SOURCE or PAGE SOURCE. This will open a window that shows you
the HTML code of the page.








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Text Formatting Tags


Tag Description


Defines bold text


Defines big text


Defines emphasized text


Defines italic text


Defines small text


Defines strong text


Defines subscripted text


Defines superscripted text


Defines inserted text


Defines deleted text


Deprecated. Use instead


Deprecated. Use instead


Deprecated. Use styles instead





"Computer Output" Tags


Tag Description


Defines computer code text


Defines keyboard text


Defines sample computer code


Defines teletype text


Defines a variable


Defines preformatted text


Deprecated. Use instead


Deprecated. Use
instead


Deprecated. Use
instead





Citations, Quotations, and Definition Tags


Tag Description


Defines an abbreviation


Defines an acronym


Defines an address element


Defines the text direction


Defines a long quotation


Defines a short quotation


Defines a citation


Defines a definition term








Some characters like the < character, have a special meaning in HTML, and therefore cannot be used in the text.





To display a less than sign (<) in HTML, we have to use a character entity.








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Character Entities

Some characters have a special meaning in HTML, like the less than
sign (<) that defines the start of an HTML tag. If we want the
browser to actually display these characters we must insert character
entities in the HTML source.





A character entity has three parts: an ampersand (&), an entity name or a # and an entity number, and finally a semicolon (.





To display a less than sign in an HTML document we must write: < or <




The advantage of using a name instead of a number is that a name is
easier to remember. The disadvantage is that not all browsers support
the newest entity names, while the support for entity numbers is very
good in almost all browsers.





Note that the entities are case sensitive.





This example lets you experiment with character entities: Character Entities IE only








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Non-breaking Space


The most common character entity in HTML is the non-breaking space.




Normally HTML will truncate spaces in your text. If you write 10
spaces in your text HTML will remove 9 of them. To add spaces to your
text, use the character entity.








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The Most Common Character Entities:


Result Description Entity Name Entity Number


non-breaking space


< less than <


& ampersand & &


" quotation mark " "


' apostrophe ' (does not work in IE) '





Some Other Commonly Used Character Entities:


Result Description Entity Name Entity Number


cent


pound


yen


section


copyright


registered trademark


multiplication


division











The Anchor Tag and the Href Attribute


HTML uses the [url=] (anchor) tag to create a link to another document.





An anchor can point to any resource on the Web: an HTML page, an image, a sound file, a movie, etc.





The syntax of creating an anchor:





[/url][url=url]Text to be displayed[/url]




The [url=] tag is used to create an anchor to link from, the
href attribute is used to address the document to link to, and the
words between the open and close of the anchor tag will be displayed as
a hyperlink.








Frames

With frames, you can display more than one HTML document in the
same browser window. Each HTML document is called a frame, and each
frame is independent of the others.





The disadvantages of using frames are:





The web developer must keep track of more HTML documents


It is difficult to print the entire page





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The Frameset Tag


The tag defines how to divide the window into frames


Each frameset defines a set of rows or columns


The values of the rows/columns indicate the amount of screen area each row/column will occupy





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The Frame Tag


The tag defines what HTML document to put into each frame

In the example below we have a frameset with two columns. The first
column is set to 25% of the width of the browser window. The second
column is set to 75% of the width of the browser window. The HTML
document "frame_a.htm" is put into the first column, and the HTML
document "frame_b.htm" is put into the second column:























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Basic Notes - Useful Tips

If a frame has visible borders, the user can resize it by dragging
the border. To prevent a user from doing this, you can add
noresize="noresize" to the tag.





Add the [/url]
[url=] tag for browsers that do not support frames.




Important: You cannot use the tags
together with the tags! However, if
you add a tag containing some text for browsers that
do not support frames, you will have to enclose the text in
tags! See how it is done in the first example
below.
[/url]
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